Los conectores discursivos son adverbios y conjunciones que ayudan a relacionar las diferentes ideas que constituyen un texto o una intervención oral. Se trata de relaciones temporales, de causa y efecto, de contraste y de comparación, etc. En la lección de hoy dedicaremos tiempo a estas “pequeñas” palabras que nos permiten articular nuestro discurso y transmitir nuestro mensaje con claridad.
Los conectores en inglés se agrupan en diferentes categorías. En cada categoría distinguiremos entre los conectores más habituales y los de registro formal:
1. Conectores que indican la secuenciación de las ideas o de los argumentos:
- Registro neutro: first, then, next, at the same time, finally, in the end
First, watching TV every day is bad for your eyes. Second, watching TV is really a waste of time.
- Registro formal: firstly, secondly, thirdly, simultaneously, subsequently, lastly
Subsequently, the disease spread to the rest of the village.
2. Conectores para añadir información o argumentos a una afirmación anterior:
- Registro neutro: and, also / too, besides, what is more, as well
I don’t have a mobile phone. What is more, I totally dislike modern technology.
- Registro formal: moreover, in addition, furthermore
He has been appointed Prime Minister. Furthermore, this popularity with the voters is at its highest.
3. Conectores para expresar un contraste con una afirmación anterior:
- Registro neutro: although, though, even though, however, despite, inspite of, but
I was tired. However, I went jogging.
- Registro formal: on the one hand / on the other hand, by contrast, nevertheless, nonetheless, on the contrary, yet
On the one hand, children eat lots of sweets. On the other hand, they do not do enough exercise to burn those extra calories.
4. Conectores para corregir o dar otro enfoque a una afirmación anterior:
- Registro neutro: actually, in fact
The weather was awful. Actually, it rained every day.
- Registro formal: as a matter of fact, in reality
I didn’t pass the exam. As a matter of fact, I failed with the lowest mark in the class.
5. Conectores para introducir ejemplos o especificaciones:
- Registro neutro: such as, like, this means that, namely
Paintings by Impressionist artist such as Manet and Monet can be seen in the Orsay Museum in Paris.
- Registro formal: for example, for instance, that is to say, in other words
We cannot continue losing money. That is to say, unless we start making profit soon, we will be out of business by the end of the year.
6. Conectores para indicar el resultado o las consecuencias de algo:
- Registro neutro: so, consequently, as a result
They have hired new teachers and consequently they can offer new classes.
- Registro formal: therefore, thus, hence, thereby, accordingly
The evidence has disappeared. Thus, it will be impossible for the police to continue their investigation.
7. Conectores para concluir:
- Registro neutro: to sum up, in short, briefly
To sum up, we need to take urgent measures against corruption in our party.
- Registro formal: in conclusion, in summary
In conclusion, today’s economic crisis is mostly due to financial speculation.